A Short Introduction to Deleuze: Difference

Within most of western philosophy (of the continental branch), a strong viewpoint of dialectics has been a center point for discussion. Whether talking about Plato, Marx, or even Hegel himself, it is impossible to leave the realm of dialectical philosophy. In this orientation of viewing, negation and contradiction are essential to the models of social relations, economic models, critiques, and generally the idea of progression as a whole. In the late 19th century, however, there was a philosopher who took an anti-dialectical approach to philosophy: Fredrich Nietzsche.

Nietzsche heavily critiqued negation saying that it “is only a subsequently-invented, pale, contrasting image in relation to its positive basic concept- filled with life and passion” (The Genealogy of Morals).

Here he is stating that the idea of a negating factor leads to the negative portion of difference in a thing. Each negation constitutes a lack, a “no”. Such negation does not have the driving force to create new concepts and new “things”.

This is where Nietzsche emphasizes affirmation. Rather than a lack of something in difference to another, there is an affirmation of the difference. Instead of negativity and a lack, contradiction and opposition, there is a positive “yes” to difference.

Both of these concepts, that being good and bad, are created by us as humans and thus we value them. We implement the created concepts into our viewing of the world and thus we become obstructed with our craving for lack and negation.

The power of affirmation allows differences to create new ideas and concepts. In the will to power of all “things”, there is not a negating factor in which process occurs but rather there is an affirmation to these differences. The affirmation is able to exist in nature and thus has the ability to truly create in nature. In all things moving and occurring, the will to power does not merely exist to be negated but rather brought to life. The dialectic is not power itself but rather a representation of power. Affirmation of difference continues to move while the dialectic is discussed.

Not only is negation an insufficient concept, it is also not able to produce in the world of praxis. The affirmation of difference allows for the individual to act rather than react. Reactionary forces are the forces of the dialectic, forces of negation and resentment.

The interacting forces within the world are not negating forces, but will to power. Ever-interacting forces do not produce out of negation but rather through the will to power. The will to exist and the will to differentiate. The will to affirm difference. Thus, all creations out of difference are affirmative. As difference is created out of will to power, such wills are separate from one another. They affirm differences. Thus each will is not the same from another will. If all will to power originated from the same will, then none would have the ability to change or affirm difference.

This here however, is only a small scale/ single display of the affirmation of difference. In order to see the way that the universe operates on a scale subjective to the human, there must be many different forces interacting and flowing. These flows working and interacting with another on the large scales add. Each individual’s will to power follows other wills. Objects and individual subjects combine in direction and thus do not change the will itself but rather the direction of flow. In the body there exists many functions, many operations. Each with their own will to power. Here, identity is not seen as an “identity” but rather a multiplicity of wills.

Such scale of these wills allow for the ongoing processes of the universe. Even the slowest “things” have constant flow and affirmative difference. Mountains, the Earth, the Sun are ever changing; they all go through ongoing processes and on this scale count as multiplicities of wills. Nothing stops, no difference ends, nothing is ending affirmation. And in the multiplicities of wills occurs the constant affirmation of difference. There is always affirmation and thus there is always creation. There is always becoming, there can never be a “thing” that is stable without other interacting forces changing it and affirming difference.

Flows of affirmative difference create and then repeat the creation. The process of affirmation itself is repetitive and is always to be ongoing. The only foreseeable end to affirmation is the end of the universe itself.

neomarxism and philosophy::::i’m not longer a deleuzoid or camusoid, those are up cause i got bored they are a joke trust me